Monday, February 10, 2020
Proposal - Research Paper Example Results obtained from this research will help in informing parents of the safety measure they should use to avoid accidents in their homes. This is because some parents overlook the small things around the house, that end up causing accidents with toddlers (Nationwide ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Hospital). Happy and healthy children are the joy of every parent. The presence of a newborn baby in a home gives all the adults the responsibility of ensuring the home is safe for the child. All parts of the house that the baby can access need to be child proofed to ensure the safety of the child. In any typical home, there are various hidden and obvious child safety hazards. Parents must take the necessary steps to ensure that toddlers in the house are safe (Douglas, 2003). During the early stages of development, infants and toddlers are usually very curious and tend to touch, pull, push, and eat everything they come in contact with. Every household is bound to have an encounter with an infant and therefore, childproofing is a common experience. Nevertheless, accidents still occur because of the small things that we ignore because they do not seem to be dangerous. According to Wallin (45), identifying these small things will help in preventing future accidents from occurring thus ensuring a safe and healthy baby. There has been a lot of research done regarding the issue of Infant and Toddler safety at home. Most of the injuries that happen to children under the ages of five years occur in the home environment. Infants and toddlers spend most of their time in the house and their curious nature and lack of fear exposes them to dangerous situation (Ahmann, 105). As a result toddlers are the ones who suffer the most in cases of home related injuries. This calls for action that involves establishing preventive measures and keeping an eye on toddlers as they play to prevent the occurrence
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Bruce LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s Passion in Martial Arts and Entertainment Essay Bruce Lee is a man who acted upon his destiny and was very famous for all his achievements in America and China. His determination as an actor and martial artist made him a legend throughout the world even though he died from cerebral brain swelling at the age of 32. He is considered to be the Ã¢â¬Å"Greatest Martial Artist of the 20th CenturyÃ¢â¬ because his philosophies and insightful teachings have influenced many, including myself. Since Lee was a man who made his dreams a reality he began his film career when he was six years old, brought the art of martial arts and film to America, and he also created his own style of martial arts called Jeet Kune Do. Bruce lee His first screen appearance was at three months old in his fathers movie (Roensch 15-18). This was the beginning, leading to over twenty motion picture roles and steadily increasing popularity among Hong Kong audiences (The Bruce Lee Story 1). Some of the movies he had made were Enter the Dragon, Fists of Fury and The Return of the Dragon. Even though Bruce Lee died so young, he still had the acting experience because he started acting when he was young. What is Jeet Kune Do? Simply put, its English translation is way of the intercepting fist. Bruce studies all types of fighting from American Boxing to Thai Kickboxing. His simple philosophy was rather than block a punch and hit back with two distinct motions, why not intercept and hit in one, fluid stroke. Fluidity was the ideal. Try and obtain a nicely-tied package of water, Bruce would taunt. Just like water, we must keep moving on, Inosanto reitterates. For once water stops, it becomes stagnant. Water, Bruce would always give as an example, is the toughtest thing on Earth. It is virtually indestructable; it is soft, yet it can tear rocks apart. Move like water. Bruce dissected rigid classical disciplines and rebuilt them with fluid, po-mo improvements. Its good but it needs restructuring, he would say. Classical techniques did not take into account the reality of street fighting. Jeet Kune Do did. It was pragmatic, reality-based, empirical- not a bunch of stances, postures and mumbo jumbo handed down from antiquity. Second, he brought the art of martial arts and film to America. The martial arts that he brought influenced many people in the U. S (Roensch 7). He also influenced many other Asians to act these days such as Jet Li and Jackie Chan (Roensch 9). When Bruce Lee auditioned for upcoming movies, he was turned down and was rejected because he was too oriental (The Bruce Lee Story 2 3). Even though he was rejected in American movies, he was still able to make movies in Hong Kong. His goal was to make five movies in Hong Kong but he ended up making four and a half movies because he died during the fifth movie (The Bruce Lee Story 2 3). The movie that he didnt finish was called Game of Death. Bruce Lee practiced the nunchaku with Mr. Dan Inosanto and this also made him famous. The nunchaku is made up of two short wooden or metal rods that are connected by a short chain. Mr. Dan Inosanto was one of Bruce Lees closest friends that taught him the art of the nunchaku (The Bruce Lee Story 2 1-2). Before he made the movies in Hong Kong, he made a series of shows in America called The Green Hornet starring Van Williams and Bruce Lee (The Bruce Lee Story 2 1). Despite popularity, he wanted to be known as an actor rather than a superstar. Bruce Lee had many famous quotes in various movies and interviews. One of them was ? The word ? superstar really turns me off, and Ill tell you why because the word ? star, is an illusion, it is something-what the public calls you. You should look upon [yourself] as an actor. I mean you would be very pleased if somebody said, ? Hey man, youre a super actor! It is much better than ? superstar' (Little 132).
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
In the 1930s and 1940s many Hollywood writers, actors, producers, and directors were suspected for communist affiliations. During this time, communism was a popular political movement in the United States, especially among young liberals. There was a growing fear of communism invading American society. By the end of World War Two an event known as the Red Scare resulted in communism become increasingly feared and hated by many in the United States. The Hollywood blacklist caused the Hollywood industry a lot of harm in its business and reputation. The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was created in 1938. They were focused on investigating and putting an end to Communists and Communist supporters in the American Society. Their first major attack was on the Hollywood film industry. Communists in the Hollywood industry were said to be placing subversive messages into films. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and others like Senator Joseph McCarthy pestered communists and supporters of the Communist party. McCarthy conducted Ã¢â¬Å"witch huntsÃ¢â¬ in effort to seek out and eliminate suspected Communists. Congressional hearings were in effect, not hearings, but trials for crimes that were not really crimes, with congressmen serving as prosecutor, judge, and jury. Unable to deprive a person of their life and liberty, they deprived him of his livelihood. If the person refused to give the names of other Communists, he or she would automatically be considered guilty. Witnesses of the trials were immediately classified as either friendly or unfriendly. Friendly witnesses answered questions concerning themselves and others. They were then cleared from the blacklist and allowed to go back to work in Holly... ...to obtain work in the American film and television industry for many years. Some of those blacklisted continued to write Hollywood films, using false names. This allowed movies such as The Bridge on the River Kwai to be completed. Several screenwriters moved to other countries, where they were able to find work in film. Most estimates indicate that the blacklist involved approximately three hundred and twenty-five employees in film and related industries. However nearly expert believes there were over five hundred victims of the Hollywood blacklist. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until 1961, when a director named Otto Preminger announced he was hiring a writer named Trumbo who was on the blacklist to write a move that things began to slowly change. In 1997, a group named the Writers Guild of America voted to change the writing credits of 23 films made during the blacklist period. How the Red Scare Created a Hollywood Blacklist Essay -- essays resear In the 1930s and 1940s many Hollywood writers, actors, producers, and directors were suspected for communist affiliations. During this time, communism was a popular political movement in the United States, especially among young liberals. There was a growing fear of communism invading American society. By the end of World War Two an event known as the Red Scare resulted in communism become increasingly feared and hated by many in the United States. The Hollywood blacklist caused the Hollywood industry a lot of harm in its business and reputation. The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was created in 1938. They were focused on investigating and putting an end to Communists and Communist supporters in the American Society. Their first major attack was on the Hollywood film industry. Communists in the Hollywood industry were said to be placing subversive messages into films. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and others like Senator Joseph McCarthy pestered communists and supporters of the Communist party. McCarthy conducted Ã¢â¬Å"witch huntsÃ¢â¬ in effort to seek out and eliminate suspected Communists. Congressional hearings were in effect, not hearings, but trials for crimes that were not really crimes, with congressmen serving as prosecutor, judge, and jury. Unable to deprive a person of their life and liberty, they deprived him of his livelihood. If the person refused to give the names of other Communists, he or she would automatically be considered guilty. Witnesses of the trials were immediately classified as either friendly or unfriendly. Friendly witnesses answered questions concerning themselves and others. They were then cleared from the blacklist and allowed to go back to work in Holly... ...to obtain work in the American film and television industry for many years. Some of those blacklisted continued to write Hollywood films, using false names. This allowed movies such as The Bridge on the River Kwai to be completed. Several screenwriters moved to other countries, where they were able to find work in film. Most estimates indicate that the blacklist involved approximately three hundred and twenty-five employees in film and related industries. However nearly expert believes there were over five hundred victims of the Hollywood blacklist. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until 1961, when a director named Otto Preminger announced he was hiring a writer named Trumbo who was on the blacklist to write a move that things began to slowly change. In 1997, a group named the Writers Guild of America voted to change the writing credits of 23 films made during the blacklist period.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
The Supreme Court was introduced in 2010 as a replacement for the House of Lords as the top law court of justice in the UK, Wales and Northern Ireland. This court has cost approximately 59 million pounds to build and was officially open on 1st October 2009. The enactment of the Supreme Court came about under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (The Supreme Court [Online], 2010) and currently stands as the chief justice in the UK. The main focus of this essay is to examine how The Supreme Court prioritises in the development of the United Kingdom Law thus playing an important task at maintaining fundamental individual rights. Being the most prominent judiciary in the UK, it is also vital to see the difference between The Supreme Court and the previous House of Lords Committee in which The Supreme Court has replaced. The major differences are visible in terms of power and the impact it has on the British Constitution. The main reason The Supreme Court was built is due to the GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision on separating the judicial making functions and the legislative duty of the House of Lords, making this the last step in separation of powers. Lord Philip, 2009) stated that it has come to a situation where the adjudicator are absolutely separated from the Legislature and Parliament. (Raynsford, 2010) claimed that it was right for the Prime Minister, prior consultation from the Parliament, to relocate the Ultimate Court of Appeal (The Supreme Court) from the House of Lords as to avoid confusion between the role of the House of Lords and the role of the Court of Appeal. In addition, this separation of power avoids the judiciary from holding absolute power, thus discouraging corruption and bias from the judiciary through politics and media. (Casciani, 2010) stated that after the running of the Supreme Court, 12 Law chancellor from the House of Lords who were hearing appeals in the Parliament is now the Justices of the Supreme Court and are no more partaking in the House of LordÃ¢â¬â¢s affair. Before the enactment of the Supreme Court, senior judges that are currently in the House of Lords were nlightened to apprehend cases that are of great significant to the public and constitution inside the House of Lords itself (The Supreme Court [Online], 2010). They were eligible to vote for the outcome of the cases and sometimes, if any, would have a major relation to personal political interest. However, with a new key reform in place, Parliament will be responsible for making law on favour of the electorate whilst the judges from the Supreme Court focus on the fairness of the new law when applied to cases (BBC News, 2010). Lord Falconer, 2009) suggested that this new reform would strengthen the judiciary, making it possible for the judiciary to go against the executiveÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions (Prime Minister and his Cabinet) Moreover, a leading judge has told BBC that BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Supreme Court could be more authoritative than the House of Lords department and Lord Neuberger anticipate that the new court of appeal could hold more power than the government (Rozenberg, 2009). It is believed that the judgment of the justices from the Supreme Court will affect the decisions in the lower courts which, in this case, apply to all the courts in the UK (BBC News, 2010). The Supreme Court also emphasise on corruption issues involving governing authorities in Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland, making sure that they abide and commit within the powers granted to them or whether they successfully complete the duty given to the authoritative government in each state. Lord Neuberger argued that there is a real danger that judges will seize more power than what they currently have (Rozenberg, 2009). Therefore, it is likely that the Supreme Court operates the way the United StateÃ¢â¬â¢s Supreme Court functions which, upon the CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions, bind every local law in individual states. For instance, if The Supreme Court decides to change the laws in London (the Capital city), other cities have to follow. (Lord Philips, 2009) stated that such situation is Ã¢â¬ËpossibleÃ¢â¬â¢ but is Ã¢â¬Ënot probableÃ¢â¬â¢. However, although the Supreme Court has shown many advantages so far in America, criticisms have arisen on the decisions made by the Supreme Court claiming that it weakens the Court as an institution where the institution is the ultimate guardian under the Constitution of the rights and liberties (Fraenkel, 1960). Lord Phillips who has commented on various contentious subjects in the past states that there was no reason to why Sharia law could not be used to resolve disputes amongst Muslims provided that the sanctions complied with the laws of England and Wales. Furthermore, he openly defended the Human Rights Act, calling it Ã¢â¬Å"a crucial constituent of the basic of our fight against terrorismÃ¢â¬ and was responsible for handing down the judgement requiring the Director of Public Prosecutions to clarify with certainty the law on assisted suicide (Mitchell, 2011). Lord Phillips added that the decree of the Human Rights Act by the previous administration was an absolute contribution to the maintenance of the rule of law in this country and one for which it deserves great credit (Rothwell, 2010). The Human Rights Act 1998 has played its part since the World War on protecting civil rights and allowing immigrants into the UK where Human Rights are not considered vital in their own country. (Lord Philips, 2009) emphasised on the importance of Human Rights, claiming that the rise and support of terrorism lies in the feelings of discrimination in individuals. Therefore, the need to protect every individualÃ¢â¬â¢s family members from discrimination in their foster country is vital. However, Charles Clarke criticised the Supreme Court, claiming that the judiciary do not hold inconsiderable accountability for defending the public and occasionally ignorant about their decisions on how it would affect the public society (Rothwell, 2010). Lord Philips defended the liberty of The Supreme Court stating that the judiciary is only responsible for applying the laws that have been constitute by Parliament, not creating it (Rothwell, 2010). Another case reported in BBC news where the Supreme Court is proven to be effective in its duty to defend individual rights is shown when two homosexual men who said they faced persecution in their homeland have the right to asylum in the UK as ruled by the Supreme Court. According to the judgment made by Lord Hope in the case, to restrain a homosexual person to act that his state does not suppress the attitude by which to distinct itself is to deny his domestic right to be who he is hence homosexuals are as much entitled to the freedom which are given to the people who are traight (BBC, 2010). Ultimately, this essay has thoroughly examined the historic foundation of The Supreme Court, its motive to why the government took a stand on separating the Court of Appeal (The Supreme Court) from the House of Lords as well as the colossal impact it has ranging from the public society to the British Constitution. Even though the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, some disadvantages should be considered such as one stated by Charles Clarke, the previous Lord Chancellor in the House of Lords, claiming that the judiciary does not consider the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s well being. I am very conscious that I have failed to spot on a few vital and intriguing points and other matters on this subject. The Supreme Court is credibly to be not perfect and widely opens itself to criticism, Although the Supreme Court is new (2010) it may seem to remain as the highest court of appeal for all UKÃ¢â¬â¢s domestic cases and criminal cases from Wales, Northern Ireland and England, flourishing as the top court in the UK and uphold its liberty as the forefront in the case law world (The Supreme Court, 2010).Biblography * Casciani, D., 2010. Supreme Court quashes Treasury terror assets order. [Online] Available at: < http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8482630.stm> Assessed on May 1st 2011 * Fraenkel, O.S., 1960. The Supreme Court and Civil Liberties: How the Court has protected the Bill of Rights. p.4. * Mitchell, N., 2011. Pen Portraits Ã¢â¬â Lord Phillips. UKSC Blog. [Online] Available at: < http://ukscblog.com/pen-portraits-lord-phillips> Assessed on May 1st 2011 * Raynsford, N, 2009. Creation of the Supreme Court [Online] Available at: < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ojsQA2W81I> Assessed on May 2nd 2011 * Rothwell, R., 2010. Lord Phillips defends Human Rights Act. Law SocietyGazette. [Online] Available at: < http://www.lawgazette.co.uk/news/lord-phillips-defends-human-rights-act> Assessed on April 25th 2011 * Rozenberg, J., 2009. Fear over Supreme Court impact. BBC News UK. [Online] Available at: < http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8237855.stm> Assessed on May 2nd 2011 * Supreme Court, 2010. Gay asylum seekers from Iran and Cameroon win appeal. BBC News UK. [Online] Available at: Assessed on May 4th 2011 * Supreme Court, 2010. Role of the Supreme Court, [Online] Available at: < http://www.supremecourt.gov.uk/about/role-of-the-supreme-court.html> Assessed on May 4th 2011
Monday, January 6, 2020
Sample details Pages: 16 Words: 4755 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/09/19 Category Health Essay Type Argumentative essay Tags: Health Care Essay Did you like this example? Transforming Singapore Health CareÃ¢â¬âMK Lim 461 Commentary Transforming Singapore Health Care: Public-Private PartnershipÃ¢â¬ MK Lim,1FAMS, FRCP (Edin), MPH (Harvard) Abstract Prudent health care policies that encourage public-private participation in health care financing and provisioning have conferred on Singapore the advantage of flexible response as it faces the potentially conflicting challenges of becoming a regional medical hub attracting foreign patients and ensuring domestic access to affordable health care. Both the external and internal health care markets are two sides of the same coin, the competition to be decided on price and quality. For effective regulation, a tripartite model, involving not just the government and providers but empowered consumers, is needed. Government should distance itself from the provider role while providers should compete Ã¢â¬â and cooperate Ã¢â¬â to create higher-value health care systems than what others can offer. Health care policies should be better informed by health policy research. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2005;34:461-7 Key words: Health care costs, Health care regulation, Health economics, Health reform Introduction Should health care services be publicly or privately funded? And should these services be publicly or privately provided? The answers to these questions largely depend on whether one considers health care a public or a private good. Most people would consider the provision of street lighting and national security to be a public sector responsibility, and luxury items like cars and annual holidays abroad to be private consumption goods best left to the individual to purchase and the private sector to provide. When it comes to health care, however, the issues become highly contentious and the answers are not as clear-cut. While consulting a doctor is a very personal matter, the thought of denying a fellow human being access to the same level of health care because of his or her inability to pay, stirs deep emotions. Historically, the pendulum in the health care debate has swung back and forth between the state and the private sector. Definitions In this paper, the term Ã¢â¬Å"public sectorÃ¢â¬ refers to that part f the economy concerned with providing basic government services while the Ã¢â¬Å"private sectorÃ¢â¬ is that part of the economy not controlled by the government. The latter could be Ã¢â¬Å"for-profitÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"not-for-profitÃ¢â¬ in nature. The term Ã¢â¬Å"public-private partnershipÃ¢â¬ in health care finance refers to the situation where the government mobilises private sector sources of funds to finance health care services. Correspondingly, public-private partnership in health services provision entails government encouragement of private sector participation in the delivery of public services. The possible combinations of publicprivate mix in the health sector are shown in Figure 1. International Experience The ke y questions surrounding health care systems around the world are: (a) how to raise revenues to pay for health care; (b) how to pool risks and resources; and (c) how to organise and deliver health care in the most efficient and cost-effective manner. Whether the strategies adopted rely on public sources like taxes and social insurance, or private sources like private insurance and out-of-pocket payment, Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine National University of Singapore, Singapore Address for Reprints: A/Prof Lim Meng Kin, Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, MD3, 16 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597. Email: [emailprotected] edu. sg Ã¢â¬ Based on an invited lecture delivered at the 30th Medico-Legal Society Annual Seminar: Transforming Health Care at the Grand Hyatt, Singapore, 6-7 November 2004. 1 August 2005, Vol. 34 No. 7 462 Transforming Singapore Health CareÃ¢â¬âMK Lim Provision Public Publi c Finance Private Publicly financed Publicly provided Privately financed Publicly provided Private Publicly financed Privately provided Privately financed Privately provided for this include insufficient government resources and poor performance on the part of the public sector. State-run institutions are notoriously bureaucratic. There is a growing realisation that involving the private sector in health services provision could lead to improved systems efficiency. Even in Europe, the sustainability of health care systems founded on egalitarian welfarism is increasingly being challenged as growth in demand outstrips supply. 3 The debate is no longer about Ã¢â¬Å"who should pay? Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"who should provide? Ã¢â¬ but Ã¢â¬Å"who can do the job more efficiently? Ã¢â¬ . SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s Experience Health Care Finance SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s experience exemplifies an evolving publicprivate partnership in health care financing and provision. In the 1980s, the Singapore gov ernment reexamined from first principles the role of the state in health care financing and provision, and concluded that a British-style National Health Service was neither a viable nor a sustainable option. It decided that while the government would continue to subsidise health care (along with other important social areas like housing and education) to bring prices down to an affordable level, the people would have to share in the costs of the services they consume. The Ã¢â¬Å"3MÃ¢â¬ system Ã¢â¬â Medisave (1984), Medishield (1990) and Medifund (1993) Ã¢â¬â which forms the centrepiece of SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s health care financing system, was therefore premised on the philosophy of shared responsibility, and the economic principle that health care services should not be supplied freely on demand without reference to price. In persuading the people to accept this hard-nosed policy, the government reasoned that the question Ã¢â¬Å"who pays? was not the right question to ask, f or Ã¢â¬Å"whether it is the government, Medisave, employers, or insurance, it is ultimately Singaporeans themselves who must bear the burdenÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â since insurance premiums are ultimately paid by the people, employee medical benefits form part of wage costs, and taxes are paid by taxpayers. Over the years, the demand for health care has increased in tandem with the key drivers of health care costs, such as the rapid ageing of the population, advancing medical technology resulting in the increased range and number of possible interventions, and rising public expectations. SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s innovative 3M system of health care financing has proven to be very effective in mobilising private financial resources. Medisave, the state-run medical savings accounts, which is compulsory for the working population, today stands at a staggering S$30 billion, an amount that can underwrite SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s total health care expenditure for the next 5 years. A most remarkable achieve ment has been the gradual Fig. 1. Public-private mix in health care provision and financing. will have a profound impact on heath care costs, quality, and access. In making the choice, technical efficiency is an important, but not the only consideration. Most health care systems in western industrialised countries assume a high degree of responsibility for personal health care because they are driven by values which lean heavily towards notions of equity, fairness and solidarity. With the notable exception of the United States, all the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries (including Japan and South Korea) have opted for publicly financed health care systems that provide universal coverage. The United States relies heavily on the private sector to finance health care, with the result that in 2002, 15. 8% of its population (or 42. 3 million people) were not covered by health insurance of any form. 1 The Europeans and Canadians (and indeed many A mericans themselves) consider this to be highly inequitable. At the same time, they are saddled with runaway health care costs from which they are struggling to break free. The facts on the ground are often different from the official rhetoric. Thus, although the British in theory enjoy free health care under the National Health Service, 10% of the population have purchased private health insurance, with one-fifth of all elective surgery being performed in the private sector. Likewise, although New Zealanders may enjoy free health care, one-third of the population have private health insurance, with one-fourth of all surgery being performed in private hospitals. 2 In Canada, where the single-tier health care system is mandated by law, increasing numbers who are frustrated with the growing waiting lists for surgery simply cross the border to the United States to buy more esponsive, private health care. In fact, all the welfare states have, without exception, found it necessary to impose arbitrary limits on health care spending and to ration access to expensive medical technology Ã¢â¬â to the extent of compromising on health care quality. In recent years, the trend in both the developed and developing worlds has been towards greater private sector involvement in health care provision and financing. Reasons Annals Academy of Medicine Transforming Singapore Health CareÃ¢â¬âMK Lim 63 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Government expenditure Private expenditure Fig. 2. Public versus private health financing, Singapore (1965-2000). shift of the financial burden from the government to the private sector (Fig. 2). 5 Since access to needed care is explicitly guaranteed for the poor,6 and the state-run Medishield insurance scheme protects against financial ruin from catastrophic illness, the system is on the whole no less humane than a state-funded one. Health Care Provision Health care provision comprises a mix of 8 public h ospitals and 5 specialty centres which together account for 80% of inpatient beds, with 13 private hospitals accounting for the remaining 20%. Primary health care is easily accessible through an extensive and convenient network of private general practitioners (80%) and public outpatient polyclinics (20%). In addition, an estimated 12% of daily outpatient attendances are by traditional Chinese practitioners in the private sector. The successful corporatisation of SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s health care institutions between 1985 and 2002 has resulted in better efficiency and improved service levels. Market mechanisms and structures have replaced old bureaucratic ones. Presumably, better and more informed decisions are being made at the local level, compared to central planning by the Ministry of Health (MOH). Patient responsiveness today is a far cry from the overcrowded wards and specialist outpatient clinics of yesteryear. Patient satisfaction is reportedly high (85%); average waiting time for elective surgery is apparently a mere 2 weeks; and the average length of stay in a public hospital is 5 days. With first-world standards of health attainment (an average life expectancy of 78. 4 years and an infant mortality rate of 2. 2 per 10007) at an affordable 3% to 4% of GDP for the last 3 decades, Singaporeans appear to be getting good value for their money. Singapore Health Care at the Crossroads Looking ahead, a number of challenges place SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s health care system squarely at the crossroads. These include (a) the need for cost containment on the domestic front; (b) SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s push to become a regional hub of medical excellence; and (c) the ongoing quest for quality and patient safety. After years of continuous growth averaging 8. 0% between 1965 and 2000, the Singapore economy began to flounder during the 1997 regional financial crisis and the subsequent economic slowdown in 2003 associated with the SARS outbreak. Although it has since bounc ed back (8% to 9% projected growth for 2004), SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s maturing economy faces tough times ahead, including the effects of lobalisation and increased competition from China as the emerging economic powerhouse. The government is committed to restructuring the Singapore economy and some recommendations of the Economic Review Committee (2002) have implications for the health sector such as (a) the reduction of the Central Provident Fund (CPF) contribution rate (thus affecting the Medisave contribution rate) and (b) the identification of the health sector as an important sector to target economic growth Ã¢â¬â in other words, to further commercialise medicine and turn it into a money spinner for the Singapore economy. Challenge of Cost Containment In theory, rising health care costs should not pose a problem if the rate of increase is matched by rising national income, just as the legendary Milo of Crotona grew stronger each day by lifting his calf every day Ã¢â¬â as th e calf grew, so did his muscles! Unfortunately, in SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s case the calf is growing faster than our ability to carry it. Health care expenditure cannot remain at 3% of GDP for long. For one thing, as the economy matures and GDP growth inevitably slows, the masking effect of an expanding GDP denominator will disappear. Another factor is the rapidly ageing population, now constituting a mere 7. 7%, but projected to increase to 14% in 2010 and 25% in 2030. The 3M formula was not designed to take into account the long-term care needs of the elderly. Advancing medical technology in the era of genomic medicine will add to the mounting cost pressures. New schemes like Eldercare and Elderfund have been added. The government has acknowledged that the key parameters for Medishield (since 1990) such as premiums, deductibles and benefits have not been sufficiently updated to reflect the increased cost of hospitalisation. Hence, a major revamp is underway to fine-tune Medishield and to broaden its risk pool. However, a more fundamental weakness of SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s cost containment strategy that has not been adequately August 2005, Vol. 34 No. 7 Percentage 464 Transforming Singapore Health CareÃ¢â¬âMK Lim addressed is its almost exclusive focus on the demand side. The 3M system was explicitly designed to curb overconsumption and to counter the Ã¢â¬Å"moral hazardÃ¢â¬ associated with fee-for-service, third-party reimbursement. The result has been the successful moderation of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s share of total expenditure, but not private spending. It can be observed that total health care spending has in fact risen exponentially, despite the 3M system being in place (Fig. 3). The focus has been on how to pay for health care, not how to purchase health care wisely. It is pertinent to point out that every dollar spent on health care is a dollar earned by health care providers. Hence, there is inherently no incentive for health care providers to want to contain costs. Indeed, providers could be expected to exhibit entrepreneurial behaviour. Casemix was introduced in 1999 as a cost containment measure to check supply-side moral hazard. But alas, since E = P x Q (where E = expenditure, P = price and Q = quantity) controlling price (P) alone (which is what reimbursement based on DRG attempts to do) is not going to curb the quantity (Q) of services supplied. There is also no evidence that the splitting of SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s heath care institutions into 2 competing clusters has resulted in competition of the healthy kind that would justify the increased overheads of having 2 clusters, or that SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s doctors are rendering health care at the economically optimal point, where the marginal benefits to patients would justify the marginal costs of treatment. Challenge of Becoming a Regional Medical Hub The fact that SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s major private sector health care players are listed on the Singapore Exchange refle cts the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s favourable disposition towards the commercialisation of health care services. The government has in recent years also allocated billions of dollars to attract foreign pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to Singapore, including multinationals like ScheringPlough, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Sharp Dohme, Aventis and Pfizer. Realising that Singapore doctors enjoy a good reputation, as attested by the 200,000 foreign patients who came from the surrounding region in 2003,8 it wants to turn Singapore into the premier medical hub in the region. The Economic Review Committee, charged with making recommendations to improve SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s competitiveness, has set an ambitious target of one million foreign patients a year by 2010, which would bring in an estimated $3 billion annually and create 13,000 jobs. In 2004, the Economic Development Board, Singapore Tourism Board (STB) and International Enterprise Singapore (IE) announced the launch of Singapore M edicine, a multiagency government initiative aimed at developing Singapore into one of AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s leading destinations for health care services. Who should drive the regional push: the public or private sector? As with health care financing, focusing on Ã¢â¬Å"who? Ã¢â¬ is to ask the wrong question. To use Deng XiaopingÃ¢â¬â¢s metaphor, what matters is not the colour or breed of the cat, but its ability to achieve results. The challenge is not only to achieve the set targets, but to do so in a manner that enhances SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s standing in the international arena and its relations with its neighbours. The last thing we want is to become a high-priced medical Ã¢â¬Å"tourist trapÃ¢â¬ founded on activity-based, rather than evidence-based medicine. This means a focus on the basics Ã¢â¬â ethical, cost-effective medical practice, with emphasis on quality and patient safety. This leads us to the third challenge, which has implications for both the domestic and regiona l/international fronts. Challenge of Quality and Patient Safety There is growing concern worldwide that the health care industry is plagued with unnecessary and inappropriate care, even replete with medical errors. The Institute of MedicineÃ¢â¬â¢s 1999 report, Ã¢â¬Å"To Err is HumanÃ¢â¬ , has put the issue of patient safety and quality firmly on the public agenda. The 2001 sequel, Ã¢â¬Å"Crossing the Quality ChasmÃ¢â¬ , has described the wide gulf that exists between what is and what should be in terms of quality health care. 10,11 How does medical care in Singapore measure up in terms of safety, effectiveness, patient-centeredness, timely care, efficiency and equity? To safeguard patient safety and ensure quality care, it is essential that these unknowns about our health care processes and outcomes are measured Ã¢â¬â for what we do not measure we cannot manage. SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s journey in quality and patient safety has been discussed elsewhere and will not be repea ted here. 12 5 4. 5 4 3. 5 $ billion 3 2. 5 2 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Government expenditure Private expenditure Total expenditure Fig. 3. Trends in national health expenditure, Singapore (1965 to 2000). 4 Annals Academy of Medicine Transforming Singapore Health CareÃ¢â¬âMK Lim 65 One thing is clear, however: while professional selfregulation is important, it is insufficient. Regulatory structures external to the doctor-patient relationship are needed to protect the public interest and to align provider behaviour with desired goals. However, government regulation is also of limited effectiveness, for the government, too, faces the same problem of information asymmetry as the patient Ã¢â¬â given the large grey zone of clinical judgment and the delicate nature of the doctorpatient relationship, which precludes over-intrusive monitoring. What is needed is a new paradigm of health care regulation involving the participation of empowered consum ers, more of which will be described later (Fig. 4). Regulator Empowerment Price and Quality transparency Patient Trust Performance indicators Provider Fig. 4. Tripartite regulatory framework. The Way Forward The three challenges highlighted above Ã¢â¬â cost containment, developing a medical hub and ensuring quality and patient safety Ã¢â¬â are interrelated. A focus on costs without a corresponding focus on quality and patient safety is meaningless. Care that is cheap but of poor quality is surely not what Singaporeans want or deserve. Neither will a reputation for expensive or inappropriate treatment propel us towards our goal as a medical hub. Both cost containment and quality of care are critical factors to SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s success as a regional medical hub. The international market competition, as with the domestic market competition, will ultimately be decided on the basis of both price and quality. A first step towards achieving all of these goals is to create the r ight conditions for (a) competition, (b) consumer choice, and (c) provider cooperation. Competition The literature on the effects of hospital competition in the US reveals that competition has been beneficial, lowering cost and increasing quality. Market competition is conducive to innovation and continuous improvement. It provides a more appropriate equilibrium of prices, technology, and capacity than would be possible by central planning. Furthermore, studies have shown that private delivery of health care services has efficiency advantages over public delivery. Still, whether private hospitals are more efficient than public hospitals is beside the point; what is important for market competition to work is that there is a level playing field for both public and private providers. Such a competitive model provides strong incentives for both technical and allocative efficiency. Those providers (public or private) unable to compete in terms of price and quality of their service s should bow out and let others step in. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s role would be to monitor and enforce contractual arrangements. It should provide oversight, not micro-manage, and should intervene only when there is market failure. It is telling that the imperative for cost control and increased efficiency has driven even the welfare states of Europe to introduce competition in their health care systems. In tax-based systems (e. g. , the UK), this has meant the establishment of Ã¢â¬Å"internal marketÃ¢â¬ mechanisms, enforcing a split between purchasers and providers. The evidence from Scandinavian countries shows that competition and a split between providers and purchasers improve productivity, access and quality. 13 SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s health care environment is presently competitive in form but not in substance. Despite restructuring, the Singapore government still multi-hats as regulator, policymaker, asset owner, and major purchaser and provider of services, remaining ef fectively in control of the 2 health care clusters. This makes arms-length regulation difficult. The inter-cluster competition is somewhat artificial and may even be counterproductive. The government should further distance itself from the public provider role and confine itself to being a policy setter and unbiased regulator, applying a consistent approach to all service providers. Public sector providers should be given greater exposure to market forces, including having to compete with the private sector for a share of statesubsidised patients. Consumer Choice SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s regulatory framework should not merely consist of 2 parties, namely the regulator (MOH) and the regulated (public and private providers). It should ideally be tripartite, in which empowered and well-informed consumers play their rightful role in selecting health care providers on the basis of price and quality of care provided (Fig. 4). Information asymmetry would not be an insurmountable barrier on ce the full power of information technology plus the role of the media is brought to bear. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s role should be to ensure transparency of key performance measures across the system so that consumers will be well informed and able to make sound August 2005, Vol. 34 No. 7 466 Transforming Singapore Health CareÃ¢â¬âMK Lim decisions. The publication of selected prices of certain procedures on the Ministry of Health website in 2004 has already led to some dramatic price reductions. Once government websites start publishing reliable and valid provider data on quality, safety and health outcomes in addition to pricing, there will be a major shift in the balance of power, resulting in a more stable equilibrium of provider accountability. Providers would be motivated to improve responsiveness to consumer preferences, and consumers would be empowered to choose freely between providers, both public and private, on the basis of cost, quality and other desirable attribute s. Cooperation The twin notions of competition and cooperation among providers need not be contradictory. Providers already know there is advantage to be gained by cooperation (which was what Ã¢â¬Å"clusteringÃ¢â¬ of public sector hospitals was supposed to do, except that it would have worked better if the cooperation had been spontaneous rather than forced). Ã¢â¬Å"CoopetitionÃ¢â¬ , or cooperation amidst competition, should be the watchword as Singapore strives to become a regional medical hub. Ultimately, SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s health care institutions must compete successfully with the Ã¢â¬Å"competition out thereÃ¢â¬ on the basis of clinical quality and price, in addition to other desirable service characteristics such as Ã¢â¬Å"one-stop, seamless careÃ¢â¬ . For this to happen, Singapore providers must first get their internal act together. Only by cooperating can they leverage on the respective strengths of the public and private sectors, and can they hope to innova te and create higher-value health systems than what others offer. The Electronic Medical Records Exchange (EMRX) is a fine example of inter-cluster cooperation. In addition, SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s first Cyclotron (at a shared cost of $5. million) to support the operation of positron emission tomography scanners is a good example of cooperation between the public (SingHealth) and private (AsiaMedic and MediRad Associates, a subsidiary of Parkway Holdings) sectors, contributing to the common goal of enhancing SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s standing as a hub of medical excellence. Continuous dialogue is needed to build trust and to evolve a common strategic vision. Just as cooperating with competitors in the local market brings mutual advantages, avenues for strategic alliances with external partners or competitors to achieve win-win situations should also be explored. Conclusions Strength: Public-Private Partnership Foundations Already in Place Prudent policies involving public-private partnership s in both health care provision and health care finance have conferred on Singapore a distinct advantage over other nations facing similar challenges of diminishing resources in the face of increasing demands: It is far easier to set priorities when patients are conditioned to cost-sharing rather than free health care, and when the range of policy options available is broadened by a healthy mix of public and private providers. Weakness: Insufficient Evidence Base for Policy Making A key weakness of SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s health care system is its lack of a culture of rigorous and transparent evaluation. For example, no major effort has been undertaken to gather relevant data in a systematic manner over time to assess the full impact of hospital corporatisation. Neither has the 3M system been subject to critical analysis with all the relevant data at disposal. Likewise, to be the market leader in health care provision in the region requires in-depth knowledge nd an understanding of th e nature and behaviour of crossborder trade in health care services, the cost and quality performance of self versus the competition, and the healthseeking behaviour of local and regional consumers. Formulating health policies without the benefit of health policy research is like flying an expensive passenger aircraft without instruments. Given that Singapore spends $5 billion on health care annually, and is set to invest millions more to build the base to attract the regional health care clientele, it would seem penny wise, pound foolish not to invest a tiny fraction of that to find out what works and what doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Going Forward If SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s health care system is to be transformed into a modern and responsive 21st-century health care system, it needs to be decidedly consumer-focused. In particular, it needs to be competitive in terms of price and quality because that is what consumers everywhere expressly look for. A tripartite model of health care regulation, in volving the active participation of empowered consumers, is SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s best hope for containing costs and ensuring quality of care. Getting the internal (i. e. , domestic health care) and external (i. . , regional medical hub) acts together are two sides of the same coin, involving the same principles of competition, consumer focus and cooperation. Ã¢â¬Å"Who (public or private) does whatÃ¢â¬ is not as important as Ã¢â¬Å"what gets the job doneÃ¢â¬ . Recommendations The devil is (as always) in the details, but it is proposed that the following broad principles should form the basis of strategic planning and structural reform aimed at getting our internal and external acts together: Annals Academy of Medicine Transforming Singapore Health CareÃ¢â¬âMK Lim 467 1. To contain health care costs, both sides of the equation must be simultaneously addressed: supply side control mechanisms in addition to demand side constraints. 2. To achieve greater efficiency, public sect or provisioning should be exposed more to market forces. 3. To grow as a regional medical hub, a coordinated effort involving greater public-private, private-private, and public-public partnerships is necessary. 4. To ensure a level playing field for market competition to take place, the government should further distance itself from the public provider role and confine itself to being a policy setter and unbiased regulator. . To empower consumers to choose providers on the basis of price and quality, the government should actively pursue a policy of transparency of information on the price and quality of care of providers. 6. To balance the need to grow commercial medicine on the one hand, and keep domestic health care costs affordable on the other, health policy makers need to pay attention to the alignment of incentives with goals, and anticipate unintended side effects. 7. To improve health policy-making, the evidence base should be strengthened considerably. Health policy needs to be informed by health policy research. REFERENCES 1. US Census Bureau. 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2003. Available at www. census. gov/ apsd/techdoc/cps/cps-main. html. Accessed on 9 November 2004. 2. Goodman JC, Musgrave GL. Twenty Myths about National Health Insurance. NCPA Policy Report No. 166, 1991. 3. Duffy K. Final report of the HDSE Project. Opportunity and risk: trends of social exclusion in Europe. United Kingdom: Council of Europe Publishing, 1998. 4. Lim MK. Health care systems in transition II. Singapore, Part I. An overview of health care systems in Singapore. J Public Health Med March 1998;20:16-22. 5. Lim MK. Shifting the burden of health care finance: a case study of public-private partnership in Singapore. Health Policy 2004;69:83-92. 6. Goh CT, 1996. Speech by the Prime Minister at the National Day Rally on 18 August 1996. 7. Ministry of Health, Singapore. State of Health the report of the Director of Medi cal Services. Singapore: Ministry of Health, 2001. 8. Singapore Tourist Board Press Release. Singapore set to be health care services hub of Asia. Available at: https://www. app. singapore medicine. com/asp/new/new0201c. asp? id=881. Accessed October 20, 2003. 9. Anonymous. Singapore faces new competitors in services. The Straits Times. 2003 January 24:1. 10. Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, editors. To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, D. C. : National Academy Press, 2000. 11. Institute of Medicine. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001. 12. Lim MK. Quest for quality care and patient safety: the case of Singapore. Qual Saf Health Care 2004;13:71-5. 13. Hjertqvist J. Competing hospitals and providers work miracles confirmed by Swedish experience. Policy Frontiers, September 13, 2004:12. August 2005, Vol. 34 No. 7 DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Public Private Partnership in Healthcare" essay for you Create order
Sunday, December 29, 2019
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1891 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/03/13 Category Sociology Essay Level High school Tags: Childhood Essay Did you like this example? If school is about learning, and learning starts at birth, then the idea that we expect Kindergarteners to meet their first teachers at age five is all wrong (English, 2018). There is increasing research being facilitated on early education with specific emphasis on the overall benefits it has on children. The range of benefits discussed in recent research include academic achievement, behavior, educational progression and attainment, delinquency and crime, and labor market success, among other domains (RAND, 2005). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Benefits of Early Childhood Education" essay for you Create order While much research is available on the outcomes of early childhood education, it is the objective of this paper is to focus on the range of benefits and outcomes of early childhood education on disadvantaged and underserved children. In this literature review, I will discuss scholarly research findings which cover several elements of effective, quality early childhood education in underserved communities. This research covers topics such as how high-quality early education would narrow achievement gaps, lower involvement in the criminal justice system, and provide adequate return on financial investment for communities. What is Quality Early Childhood Education? Although there is substantial research data detailing what early education programs need to have in order to provide effective, quality education through Kindergarten; one study, synthesized by the RAND corporation (2005), had some interesting and promising findings. In 2005, the RAND Corporation did a research brief outlining scientifically based, published research on the benefits of early childhood education. The brief compared twenty early education programs throughout the nation, which provide varied, but effective approaches to early education. These programs used various interventions which span from prenatal services through Kindergarten readiness programs. According to an article, How Pre School Fights Poverty, Cynthia Lamy of ASCD.org, while the programs had various success in their methods, the research was able to conclude that each of the programs included a combination of the following elements: adequately trained, professionally educated caregivers/educators, smaller child-to-staff ratios, comprehensive and intensive services for children and families (Lamy, 2012). The information provided by this report details more about intervention features that generate better outcomes for children. This is significant because it equips policymakers and educators with valuable, scientifically sound data to achieve optimal designs for the children and families that they serve. Early Education Can Narrow Achievement Gaps The overwhelming evidence shows that children who enter kindergarten behind are likely to remain behind throughout their educational careers and beyond. These gaps in achievement are difficult to close with K-12 education alone. An article published on Every Child Matters.org, discusses the importance of early education and closing long-standing achievement gaps. This article references a report by Presidents Obamas Council of Economic Advisors titled, The Economics of Early childhood Investments, in which it discusses why high quality, dependable, affordable, and accessible child care for children early on is important as we continue to see growth in both the opportunity and achievement gaps children face nationally. Although still an issue, the research on achievement gaps shows promising results-in with the black-white disparity. In an analysis by President Obamas Council on Academic Advisers (2015), early childhood education increases cognitive and achievement scores by 0.35 standard deviations on average, or nearly half the black-white difference in the kindergarten achievement gap. Since higher income children are currently more likely to have access to high-quality early education, expanding access to underserved children would likely narrow the achievement. Although we know narrowing the achievement gap is a focus of early education, it is also important to understand what skills promote Kindergarten readiness and how to get children there. The above-mentioned article on the importance of early childhood education also states how communities can help ensure children show up to kindergarten ready to learn by providing options for accessing high-quality early childhood programs where they can develop the full range of skills necessary to be successful in school and life (Beaver, 2016). In addition to this, an infographic provided by the Zero to Three organization (2012), informs that a child who has received effective, quality early childhood education and is Kindergarten ready, will have the following attributes: healthy relationships with adults, varied experiences (especially with words/vocabulary), appropriate emotional responses (empathy, resilience, self-control etc.) and learn through play and be good problem solvers. These children, according to Mike English of Pre-KC, will now be ready for Kindergarten, they will also be more likely to read proficiently by then end of third grade, and ultimately graduate high school prepared for college or the workforce (English, 2018). Lower Involvement in the Criminal Justice System Research shows children who enter school at higher levels of readiness have higher earnings throughout their lives, they are also healthier and less likely to become involved with the criminal justice system. These positive effects suggest that investments in early childhood can benefit society. In research published by New York University Psychologys Adolescent Pathways Project, professor Hirokazu Yoshikawa discusses how early childhood education programs have long-term positive effects on social outcomes and delinquency. This research also states that improving cognitive and socio-emotional development and investing in early childhood education may reduce involvement with the criminal justice system. Lower crime translates into benefits to society from increased safety and security as well as lower costs to the criminal justice system. Early childhood education programs accompanied with family supports, provide a range of emotional, informational, and/or educational support to families with infants and preschool-age children. Early education programs are usually center based, and their core service is usually to provide an educational curriculum to groups of preschoolers or infants and toddlers, but they can also provide services as varied as basic preventive health care, informational support regarding parenting and child development, and emotional support (Yoshikawa, 1995). This literature states that programs which address multiple risk factors of delinquency in youth (ex: low-income households, single parent, low parent education level, low birth weight/preterm) and that blend aspects of family supports, and early childhood education are the foster the most promising results when it comes to steering youth away from involvement in the criminal justice system. Early Childhood Education Provides Adequate Return on Investment for Communities A common argument for supporting early childhood is that it is a good investment. To explore the idea of return on investment, the rationale behind the economic and business case for spending on early childhood would need to be explained. Early childhood programs cost money, of course, but studies show that the benefits associated with such programs also come with monetary gains and savings (RAND, 2005). In other words, the original investment generates a financial return. According to the RAND brief, if a low-income parent can secure a place for her child in a high-quality daycare program, that child is likely to benefit from exposure to a wider array of learning opportunities than he or she might have at home. Enrolling her child in daycare may also open the door for the parent to take on employment or further her education in order to improve her career prospects. Those individual benefits can be substantial, and life-changing. Other benefits of early childhood programs include state and local government, and society at large. Because high quality early childhood programs promote healthy development, they can generate savings by preventing the need for more expensive interventions later in a childs life .For example, studies show that participation in high-quality early care can help children avoid special education, grade repetition, and incarceration Ã¢â¬Å" all outcomes that imply large costs for government and for society (RAND, 2005). Furthermore, children (over the long term) and parents who participate in such programs are more likely to be employed; thus, revenue from their taxes and enhanced buying power can positively contribute to the economy (The Center for High Impact Philanthropy, 2018). For example, the National Forum on Early Childhood Policy and Programs has found that high quality early childhood programs can yield a $4 Ã¢â¬Å" $9 dollar return per $1 invested. According to Early Childhood researcher, Larry Schweinhart (2012), a 2009 study of Perry Preschool, a high-quality program for 3-5 year olds developed in Michigan in the 1960s, estimated a return to society of between about $7 and $12 for each $1 invested.The research is clear, early childhood stands out as a particularly noteworthy area for investment mainly because so many interventions appear to save money in the longer term. Trends and Issues in Early Childhood Education Although the research indicating benefits on early childhood education are promising, there is other data presented by research that is worth mentioning in this paper. Research has shown that children enrolled in Head Start programs benefit by receiving formal education before kindergarten. Likewise, it was shown that children enrolled in Head Start programs learned quicker than children not enrolled in these programs. In an interview with Kandace Buckner, the Educational Director of Innovators Prep Academy, a local early childhood program, children who attend early childhood programs enter kindergarten with a stronger sense of self and are acclimated to the structure of school. These skills are essential for boosting children who are disadvantaged (personal communication, October 12, 2018). However, the critics of early childhood education claim the differences between children enrolled in these programs and children not receiving early childhood education are only obvious during kindergarten, first, and second grade. During following years, children whove not received formal education prior to kindergarten test at the same level and behave like their peers with pre-kindergarten formal education (RAND, 2005). Therefore, these children may be at an advantage for a couple of years, but after that, their classmates perform at similar levels. Another major problem with some early childhood programs, such as Head Start, is that children qualifying for these programs usually come from families living below poverty-line, so these programs are not readily available for children from all backgrounds (RAND, 2005). Overall, the critical opinions seem to promote parent responsibility for properly educating their children over government/state funded programs for early childhood. Reaction Personally, the conclusions I drew from the research studied about early childhood education are that individuals and societies greatly benefit, in terms of social, economic, and other benefits, from it. The research shows that having greater emphasis placed on early education is one strategy to improve substance abuse, criminal behavior and cycles of poverty that plague many adolescents and young adults in underserved communities. With more schools moving toward implementing data-driven practices, it is important as educators to use that same method of data/research to improve the outcomes for underserved/disadvantaged children to help promote school readiness- access to quality early childhood education is one of the best ways to achieve this. Conclusion While parents, educators and even politicians have become active participants in the advocacy for early childhood education, much still needs to be done to address the issues and eventually reap the benefits discussed in this paper. Modern research on the benefits of early childhood education have brought to light how it impacts the achievement gap, reduces youth involvement in crime and presents a more than adequate return on investment for communities. We know that early childhood education benefits disadvantaged children, the task now is to convince society that the benefits surpass impacting only underserved, communities-but its reaches stretch across socioeconomic lines and racial barriers. It was the founder of the immensely popular Montessori program, Maria Montessori, who poignantly sums up the essence of the research on early childhood education when she stated, Early childhood education is the key to the betterment of society- a notation I adamantly agree with.
Saturday, December 21, 2019
There are many types of interviews and according to the UTSA University Career Center; there are over fourteen types of interviews ranging from individual interviews to group interviews to behavioral and clinical interviews. Dictionary.com defines interviewing as Ã¢â¬Å"a formal meeting in which one or more persons question, consult, or evaluate another person.Ã¢â¬ As a future Human Services professional interviewing will most likely be a major part of my career and since I am currently working with teens and young adults I have decided to focus and explore interviewing with adolescents. Adolescence is manifested by the onset of puberty Ã¢â¬Å"marked by dramatic changes in hormone levels and in physical appearance: physical growth, changes in facial structure, and appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Over the same interval, adolescents experience numerous changes in social and other environmental influences, and typically enter a stage of profound psychological transiti on. The end of adolescence is said to occur when an individual has attained a stable adult role.Ã¢â¬ (Burnett, Blakemore, Dahl 2010, pg. 926). The onset of puberty can start as early as six years old and go as late as twenty-one years old. For many teens that is a period of trial and error, testing boundaries, values and establishing their own identities. For many it is a time where there body is awkward lengths, acne is barring its teeth and voice starts to crack at the worst times possible. The stage ofShow MoreRelatedCareer Journey For Success : My Career Path941 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Career Journey to Success My career path was rerouted after the birth to my son. I was managing a 24-hour Alarm Monitoring Call Center with two years of college education in Psychology. Due to an inconsistent work schedule and difficulty locating Psychology courses that worked around my schedule, I decided to change my career path to Business Management, since I already had nearly 8 years experience in supervision and management. My mentor introduced me and made me familiarRead MoreAn Informational Interview: Sarah Buel1041 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesInformational Interview: Sarah Buel Because I am not certain what career path I intend to pursue, it was difficult to determine an appropriate person for my informational interview. However, following the advice at Quintessential Careers, I focused on my possible career choices (Quintessential Careers, Unk.). What I found was that I was likely to be involved in some type of work involving domestic violence, though I am still uncertain of the nature of that work. As a result, I decide to interview SarahRead MoreIs It Feasible To Increase The Number Of Students Who Attend799 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIs it Feasible to Increase the number of students who attend CSUÃ¢â¬â¢s job fairs? Introduction The Career Center at Colorado State University is a vital part of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s time spent at the school. It provides students with opportunities to connect with people through a variety of networking channels. One way they help students meet potential employers, is through their job fairs. An increase in the amount of students who attend job fairs can directly increase the number of students who get jobsRead MoreCareer Counseling Is Crucial For College Students1271 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCareer counseling is crucial for college students as they prepare for the real world. I have not been certified as a career counselor, but many aspects of my job require these types of conversations with my students. As a requirement for the career counseling class, I interviewed two student workers at the University of Cincinnati about their career aspirations and provided advice to help their success. The first student I interviewed had recently graduated college in May and was applying for teachingRead MoreAcademic Integration Into Career Technical Education1152 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinvestigate successful programs and curricula that implement academic integration into Career Technical Education programs at shared-time Career Technical Centers that lack teachers academically certified The constructivist paradigm emphasizes the importance of exploring how different stakeholders in a social setting construct their beliefs (Mertens, 2015). It also suggests that learners develop a theory and gain knowledge from their experiences; specifically, to understand a process or phenomenon (MertensRead MoreIdaho State University Resources Research Project1281 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIdaho State University Resources Research Project Idaho State University has several fantastic qualities. Its Pharmacy Program is one of the best in the country and it has many other great programs for students to choose from. The problem for students is sometimes they do not know what major they should choose or career path they should follow. Idaho State has a number of helpful options for student who need to deiced on their major and pick a career path. These include the Career Center and StudentRead MoreCreating Your Career Plan By Henry Wadsworth873 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCreating Your Career Plan Henry Wadsworth Longfellow penned one of my favorite sayings: Ã¢â¬Å"The heights by great men reached and kept, were not obtained by sudden flight, but they, while their companions slept, were toiling upward in the nightÃ¢â¬ (Bill n.d.). My ninth grade English teacher had a new quote or adage for us to learn at the start of every class. I owe her for teaching me the definition of the word: Gumption, as well as introducing me to quotes that I have used to push myself when I thoughtRead MoreThe Job Advertisement That Make It Effective786 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmeeting with students each day to assist with career exploration and career planning. In addition, the position is a full-time opening, which helps the reader to understand they need to have certain qualifications before considering the position. The salary is presented below the overview so that the candidate can know the value of the position. During any job search, it can be frustrating to the candidate if the salary is not presented. When designing any type of position, it is best to be transparentRead MoreJournalism : An Objective And Ethical Way1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesvariety of topics every day. A career in journalism is often a thankless and low paying job. The people who choose this job must have a passion for writing and informing the public. To further analyze a career in journalism, look at the steps to becoming one, the different types of journalism, and the qualities a journalist needs to become successful. There are a lot of steps to complete in the process of becoming a journalist. Many people begin preparing for a career in journalism by going to anRead MoreWorking My Pro Shop Assistant Job At Chisago Lakes Golf Course1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesadvancing their brand. We see new shoes, new hats, new shirts come out of Nike every day. I believe I am the same way as Nike because I am always advancing myself in the latest, or newest ways to do things. Advancing as a person I believe sets you apart from the rest of the pack. I was listening to Dr. Eric Thomas, who is a motivational speaker out of Detroit. He said that if you learn something new every day for a year you learn 365 new things. If you learn something new every week that is 52 new things